History of Jordan
Some people settled in Jordan about 50,000 years ago B.C. but the actual history of the state dates back to the Bronze age - from 3200-1950 BC - until the Iron age, and several Jordanian areas have been mentioned in religious writings since 597 B.C., such as Moab and Gilad. It should be noted that Alexander the Great ruled large areas, including Jordan, and had a major impact on its development and development, the establishment of trade centers, and, between the 2-4 BC, Greece's rule in the region, and contributed to the construction of civilization and the education system, with cities such as Philadelphia and Jadara built in their custody. As for Islamic rule, it entered Jordan in the period after 661 AD, and it continued until the advent of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled the region from the fifteenth century AD until 1918 AD, and then on May 25 of the year 1946 AD Jordan declared its independence.
Capital of Jordan
Amman is the capital of Jordan, with its commercial, administrative, economic and educational center, the largest governorate in the country in terms of population and the third largest governorate in size, preceded by the provinces of Maan and Al-Mawdifference and located in Amman, the most important institution of the Jordanian state, as well as all government departments, and the House of Representatives. The city of Amman is located in the center of the Kingdom, about 750 meters above sea level, and mountains are spread, as the capital's regions spread over 20 mountains, which is due to the beginning of the city's construction in the valleys between the mountains, which later extend on the foothills of the mountains, due to the small size of the region due to the increasing number of inhabitants.
The capital Amman has a distinctive character in its location and contemporary architecture, making it a magnet for many Arab communities and tourists from Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia, as well as from neighboring Arab countries, the Arabian Gulf and others who come to see tourist sites in general, and to practice medical tourism in particular. Oman is the main engine for about 90% of the Jordanian national economy, due to its strategic position for the Levant and the Middle East.
Geography of Jordan
Location and Area of Jordan
Jordan is located in the center of the Middle East, bordered by Syria from the north, Iraq from the north east, Saudi Arabia from the south east, and Palestine from the west, with the total length of Jordan's land border reaching about 1,635 km, sharing 744km with Saudi Arabia, 375km with Syria, 181km with Iraq, and 335km with Palestine. It has a total area of 89,342km2, with 88,802 km2 of land, and 540km2 of water.
The country's geographical nature is characterized by a climate that is a mixture of Mediterranean and dry desert climate, with the Mediterranean climate prevailing in the northern and western regions of the country, while the dry climate dominates most of its regions, and the climate in the summer is described as relatively dry and warm, with annual temperature rates ranging between 12-15 degrees Celsius. In the desert regions, the highest reaches 40-46 degrees Celsius in summer, while the winter of Jordan is moderate and wet, with annual rainfall of approximately 800 mm in the northern hillsides, and about 50 mm in the desert areas.
Jordan divides climate and geography into three key areas:
It extends below the western side of Jordan, and is part of the Great Rift Valley, which includes the most fertile area of the country, the Jordan River, the Dead Sea, which is the lowest spot on earth, as well as the Wadi Araba, Al Jaf and Gulf of Aqaba, which is about 40 km long. It is Jordan's only maritime outlet.
From Um Qis in northern Jordan to Ras Negev in the south, along the western part of the country, the buffer between the Jordan Valley and the eastern desert plains, this area has abundant rainfall, making it the center of most of Jordan's population centers.
Called the Badia region, occupies 75% of the Jordan area, and extends to Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, and is dominated by a dry and hot desert climate.
Jordan'spopulation of 2020m is estimated at 10,211,277, representing approximately 0.13% of the world's total population, with Jordan ranked 88th in the world's population, with a population density of around 115 people/km2, concentrated in the north and the north of the country. It is estimated that 91.5% of the total urban population is Arab, the majority of Jordan's population and up to 98% is Arab, while the Circus and Armenians are only 1% of the population, and in the country's languages and religions, the official language is Arabic. The first foreign language is English, and Islam is Jordan’s official religion, with 92% Muslim, 2% Druze, and 6% Christian.
Tourism in Jordan
Jordan's tourism sector is one of the most stimulating and revitalizing sectors of the national economy, with a contribution to GDP of about 14%.
and some of the most important tourist attractions in Jordan are:
Petra is one of the world's new wonders, and was chosen as a World Heritage Site in 1985, a city carved in the pink rock.
A Crusader castle built in 1132m, consisting of a tower, several corridors, and rooms, which was controlled by the Cuban Salahuddin in 1188m, and later used by the Malay and the Ottomans.
Built in the 8m century, an Umrah Palace is located in the Governorate of Zarqa, a desert palace listed as UNESCO World Heritage List in 1985.
An archeological site in the Jordanian desert, located within the borders of Amman Governorate, and featuring an architectural character that combines the early Byzantine and Islamic period, this site was used as a military base by the Romans.
Located 35 km southwest of Madaba, hot springs and baths used for treatment and recreation.
Mount Nebo is a religious area for Christians, where a small church was built in the 4m century, overlooking the Dead Sea, the Jordan River Valley, Jericho, and the far East Jerusalem hills.
Located north of the Dead Sea, one of Christians' sacred religious sites, it has been classified as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.